The African-American spiritual is the unique cultural creation of New World modernity. . . . the spirituals of American slaves of African descent constitute the first expression of American modern music. . . . The spirituals embody the creativity of courageous human beings who engaged the world of pain and trouble with faith, hope, spirit – and a kind of existential freedom even in slavery.
Cornel West, “The Spirituals as Lyrical Poetry”
Click here to hear a recording of Tuskegee Choir performing “I Couldn’t Hear Nobody Pray”
Click here to see a design drawing for “The Singing Window”
© Donald E. Armstrong and Material Practices, 2013